General information around the aviation personnel

Flight Crew Licence, sky in the background
Bild: LuBB

The Civil Aviation Authority Berlin-Brandenburg (LuBB) is dedicated to a wide range of aviation administration tasks and thus contributes to ensure safe air traffic.

This includes providing advice and assistance to aviation participants and Approved/Declared Training Organisations (ATOs, DTOs) regarding the acquisition and exercise of licences to operate aircraft as private aeroplane pilots, private helicopter pilots, sailplane pilots and balloon pilots. At the same time, however, the LuBB has to monitor that airmen and ATOs/DTOs comply with and implement the applicable regulations.

Within this framework, the LuBB actively provides information so that pilots and training organisations are always informed about the applicable legal and procedural situation and so that official correction is not necessary in the first place.

Behind the following links you will find more details on the complex law governing aviation personnel. You are cordially invited to inform yourself there specifically or also in a first general access about the relevant regulations. Of course, we have also provided information leaflets and forms for you to download.

Theoretical knowledge examination

The examination questionnaires have been developed upon the basis of the ECQB (“European Central Question Bank”). The catalogues consist of a public part (see below) and a non-public part, i.e. the examinations also include unknown questions. This is to ensure that the subject matter is really mastered and not only the catalogue was learned by heart.

The questions of the non-public part are similar to those of the public part (e.g. other numerical values in the navigation test). All questions are in line with the learning and examination objectives of the relevant EASA AMC.

Access to the structure of the examinations is shown below. Please, also note the accompanying leaflet.

Leaflet "Theoretical knowledge examination"

PDF-Dokument (483.6 kB) - Stand: 09/2021

The new examination system is mandatory for LAPL (A), PPL (A), LAPL (H), PPL (H), BPL and SPL since October 2016.

This link takes you to an excerpt from the valid questionnaire in German and English:

According to FCL.025, BFCL.135 and SFCL.135 respectively, applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a specific licence or rating under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent authority. Hence, examinations previously started under the responsibility of another Member State’s competent authority may not be resumed (continuations, partial re-takes).

Frequently asked questions

Answers to the most important questions about the aviation personnel can be obtained from Civil Aviation Authority Berlin-Brandenburg:

An invitation and thus admission to the theoretical knowledge examination takes place after the presentation of the application for taking the examination to be submitted by the applicant, as well as upon recommendation for taking the theoretical knowledge examination, which is made by the head of training of the responsible training organization (ATO or DTO). Both documents can be found under the title “Forms and Applications”.


The theoretical knowledge examination is subject to a fee; the amount of the fees depends on the “Kostenverordnung der Luftfahrtverwaltung” (LuftKostV, “cost regulation of the aviation administration”). According to the currently valid fee catalogue, the following fees are charged for taking the theoretical knowledge examination:

  • Aeroplane pilots LAPL and PPL 130,00 €
  • Helicopter pilots LAPL and PPL 130,00 €
  • Sailplane pilots SPL 65,00 €
  • Balloon pilots BPL 70,00 €

Additional fees will be charged for required retakes of examinations.


An overview of the structure of the examinations with time specification is published under the title Theoretical Knowledge Examination. The tools to be used and further information are summarized in the leaflet “Theoretical Knowledge Examinations”.


The licence must be applied for. The corresponding application form for a licence can be found under the title “Forms and Applications” and can only be submitted after having taken the practical skill test. The required supporting documents to be attached are specified in the application form.


The licence must be applied for. The corresponding application form for a licence can be found under the heading “Forms and Applications” and can only be submitted after having taken the practical skill test. The supporting documents to be attached are specified in the application form.


When the validity of a class/type rating has expired, renewal is required. For renewal, a proficiency check must be carried out with an examiner of free choice.

The proficiency check must be preceded by an assessment at an ATO. This assessment shall determine whether the applicant is competent to operate the aircraft safely or whether refresher training is required.

If the expired rating is a class rating for non-high performance single-engine piston aeroplanes, a class rating for TMG or a type rating for single-engine helicopters for which the maximum certified seat configuration does not exceed five seats, the assessment may also be conducted at a DTO.

In the case that the rating has been expired for three years or less and the rating is a class rating for non-high performance single engine piston aeroplanes or a class rating for TMG, the assessment may also be conducted by an instructor (FI or CRI).

Upon successful completion of the refresher training, the ATO, DTO or instructor, as applicable, must issue a training certificate to the applicant. The training certificate shall be presented to the examiner before the proficiency check. In the event that refresher training is not required, the record must be accompanied by adequate justification.

After a successful proficiency check, the training record must be submitted to the competent authority together with the application for renewal of the rating. The examiner’s report has to be submitted by the examiner. An endorsement on the licence by the examiner is not permitted.


Pilots of aircraft must keep reliable detailed records of all flights performed (log book). The keeping of the log book for pilots of aeroplanes and helicopters is based on FCL.050 of Regulation (EU) No. 1178/2011, for pilots of sailplanes on SFCL.050 of the Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976 and for pilots of balloons on BFCL.050 of Regulation (EU) 2018/395 in conjunction with the respective Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) published by EASA.

The aforementioned regulations explicitly require the establishment of the form and manner for recording of flight times by the competent authority. In order to comply with the regulations, the Aviation Authority Berlin-Brandenburg has established in NfL 2021-2-608 of 23.04.2021 the „Grundsätze für die Aufzeichnung von Flugzeiten …“ (“Principles for the Recording of Flight Times … “) published by the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure in NfL 2021-2-602 on 16.04.2021 as the authoritative form and manner for the recording of flight times.